If you’re building Rails apps you probably found yourself installing many external dependencies to run it. A database, a full text search engine, an in memory cache, background worker processes and many other tools that run as separate processes in your machine. If it’s a mac, you probably used homebrew or MacPorts to install these dependencies and at the end you did something like:
ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/postgresql/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents
To install it as a service that runs when your machine starts.
But think about it for a bit. You’re not actually running this all the time. If you’re maintaining a gem that depends on a tool like that you might not even really need it for anything other than running your test suite, why should you have it running all the time like that?
Well, you don’t!
That’s where foreman comes into action. Foreman is:
a manager for Procfile-based applications. Its aim is to abstract away the details of the Procfile format, and allow you to either run your application directly or export it to some other process management format.
And what is a Procfile-based application? It’s an application that has a
with instructions to start various processes it needs to run correctly. Here’s how
Procfile might look like:
rails: bundle exec rails s postgres: postgres -D /Users/mauricio/databases/postgresql elasticsearch: elasticsearch -f
It’s a list of
name: command-to-be-run for the dependencies you have. In this
case we have the rails app, a PostgreSQL database and then elasticsearch. You could
have any other process you depend on running from here and never again install
anything to run as a service in your machine.
If you're going to deploy your app to Heroku or some other service
that uses a
Procfile to prepare the environment for your app
you should rename your development
Procfile to something else
Procfile.dev so it won't be picked
up by your production environment. In this case, instead of
you would do
foreman start -f Procfile.local.
Now that you’re not installing stuff as services anymore, you can go a step further and have isolated configurations for them as well. Let’s start with a simple Rails app:
rails new foreman-example -T -d postgresql
I’m going to assume you’re using
homebrew, if you’re not, just use the command
for the package manager you’re using:
brew install postgresql
Once it’s is installed, to go the Rails app directory and run:
pg_ctl init -D vendor/postgresql
This creates a full PostgreSQL database (config files and data files) inside
vendor/postgresql directory (you could even include the db version at
the directory name since PG is well known for changing the DB format rather
frequently). By default, PG allows access to anyone locally, if you would like
to fine tune the access control, check
update the configuration as needed. Remember, this is a full PosgreSQL install,
you can change anything here and it will be visible only this app.
First service ready, let’s create our
Procfile, at the root
of the Rails app directory create a file called
Procfile with the following
postgresql: postgres -D vendor/postgresql
PostgreSQL starts with only your own user included, so if you want to use the default
postgres user to sign in, you must create it. First, start PostgreSQL from foreman (
foreman start) and once it’s running, sign in:
psql -p 5432 -h localhost -d postgres
You must do this as the same user that created the database (your own user). Once you’re in, just create the
CREATE USER postgres SUPERUSER;
You should now be able to sign in as
postgres at this server (type
\quit to exit
psql). Stop foreman and let’s continue.
Now we need some in memory cache, let’s get Redis for this app:
brew install redis
Redis is even simpler than PG, you just have to reference it’s config file,
and override the keys you need to change. The file is usually at
if it isn’t run
brew info redis and check where it is. Let’s prepare the
redis folder at our app:
mkdir -p vendor/redis/db
Now let’s create our
loglevel notice logfile "" dir vendor/redis/db/
This guarantees you’re not writing to other places for this specific redis-server instance. Everything else assumes the defaults, you can see the defaults here.
Now let’s update our
postgresql: postgres -D vendor/postgresql redis: redis-server vendor/redis/redis.conf
Since we’re at it, why don’t we also configure a redis slave? Our app in production might need to send reads to a slave redis and we can just get our config to do the same here, can’t we? Let’s create a separate folder:
mkdir -p vendor/redis-slave/db
And here’s the
loglevel notice logfile "" dir vendor/redis-slave/db/ slaveof localhost 6379 port 6380
This instructs this redis slave to connect to the master that will be running
at the default port and bind itself at port
Procfile updated again:
postgresql: postgres -D vendor/postgresql redis: redis-server vendor/redis/redis.conf redis-slave: redis-server vendor/redis-slave/redis.conf rails: bundle exec rails s
Now we have PG, redis, a redis slave and the Rails webapp process running. Can
we do more? Of course, we could include Nginx, another database, anything else
you might want to do here and they will all be booted when you type this at the
directory where the
Given you will be writing this a lot, you should probably include an alias at your shell profile for this command, I did:
alias fs="foreman start"
So it’s just
fs and everything is running.
Remember to include the
vendor/postgresql to your
you don’t want to push these folders to all your colleagues. And I prefer not
to force my own
Profile on the whole team as well, it’s simpler to have a
Procfile-example file at your repo and let people decide to use it at their own
But we’re not done yet, there’s yet another trick at your disposal when using
.env files. If you’ve heard about The 12 factor app
you probably know there are many uses to environment variables, what you might not
know is that there are better ways than to declare all environment variables for
all apps and gems that you maintain than at your shell’s profile script.
foreman you can use
.env files to declare the environment variables
for your app (and it’s dependencies) and maintain them isolated from the rest
of your environment. So, if you’re using the
aws-sdk gem, your
would look like:
AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=this-is-some-access-key AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=this-is-some-secret AWS_REGION=us-west-2
foreman automatically loads the
.env file that is at the same directory
Procfile. This way you can make all environment specific configuration
for your app to live at this
.env file and let every developer set their own
specific configurations here. All variables declared here will be available for
all processes started by
foreman as environment variables.
And while I used a Rails app for this example,
foreman doesn’t care about what
is being started. You can run anything that can be called from the command line
and run in the foreground, so you could possibly use it to run the dependencies
for your Java, Ruby, Go, Python or any other language. It’s an awesome tool to
have under your toolbelt wherever you go.
So, stop installing stuff as services and use
Foreman offers a bunch of other cool features like running many instances of
the same process at the same time, setting automatic values for ports to bind and
it also exports your
Procfile to many other formats (like Ubuntu’s upstart), so
it isn’t just for development, you can actually use it at your production environment
as well. Once you’re happy with your
Procfile’s, you should go to the website
and dig deeper into what else it can do to help you out.
The source code for this example is here.
Comments or questions? Ping me on Twitter! Tweet to @mauriciojr