One thing that is usually overlooked when defining tables and their associations in a Rails application are the indexes. Usually, this comes from the idea that “my ORM tool does the job” and in fact it might be true sometimes. One of the most successful ORM tools in the Java land, Hibernate, generates a database with indexes for all foreign keys that you have, so Java programmers that use it don’t really worry about these issues (at least not until their database is slowing down to death).
ActiveRecord migrations, on the other side, don’t really worry about these things ( unless you’re using the cool Foreign Key Migrations plugin ), you must define the indexes that you need by yourself. Usually this is done by a simple call like this:
add_index :comments, :user_id
This will create an index for the column :user_id at the :comments table. For simple associations this is straightforward, but ActiveRecord offers goodies that are not so common in other tools and one of them is the “polymorphic associations”. With polymorphic associations you can define an association without defining the kind of the object you will be associated with, you just say that it’s a polymorphic association and you’re done. The code would look like this:
class Comment belongs_to :commentable, :polymorphic => true belongs_to :user end
To make this work, at the database level you would need two columns at the :comments table, one called :commentable_id, that will hold the id of the object that owns the comment, and another called :commentable_type, that will hold the full class name of the object that owns the comment. So, if you’re commenting in a Post object with an ID of 1, the commentable_id would be 1 and the commentable_type would be “Post”. At the Post model the association would look like this:
class Post has_many :comments, :as => :commentable has_one :user end
When you’re using polymorphic associations, your queries for the object will usually contain the commentable_id and the commentable_type in the where clause, as you would be looking for comments for the commentable_id of 1 and commentable_type of “Post”, so it makes sense to create indexes for these columns. As you’ve already saw, you could do this with the following code:
add_index :comments, :commentable_id add_index :comments, :commentable_type
And now you have two indexes, one for each column, your database searches should fly with this, shouldn’t they?
Well, they will not. You’re defining two different indexes, one for each column, but you almost never search for them in separate, you’re always searching for the :commentable_id and also for the :commentable_type, so you should create an index for both columns and not for each one of them, the call should be something like this:
add_index :comments, [ :commentable_type, :commentable_id]
This is going to generate an index with both columns and your queries for your polymorphic models will now really be faster than before.
Obviously, you can also create indexes for the :commentable_type and :commentable_id columns if you search for them in separate, but having a lot of indexes in your table slows down update calls and might also create big tables in your filesystem. So, when defining polymorphic associations, remember to create an index for both columns and not just one for each of them. Also, if you know that the column will always have a value, make it not null, as searching on indexes of nullable columns in some databases (like MySQL) is slower then searching on not-null column indexes.
And before you go, when ActiveRecord creates a string column at the database level, you can define a :limit option that defines the size of the VARCHAR column at the database. If you don’t give a limit, it’s going to be set as a VARCHAR(255) and I really believe you will not have a model class with a name that has 255 characters, so, instead of creating a column with an unreasonable size (that is going to slow down queries and generate bigger indexes), give it a limit that’s real. Our final table definition would look like this one:
create_table :comments do |t| t.integer :user_id, :null => false #indexing nullable columns is slower, try to make all columns that are going to be in indexes not-null t.integer :commentable_id, :null => false t.string :commetable_type, :null => false, :limit => 20 #could be even less t.text :comment end add_index :comments, :user_id add_index :comments, [:commentable_id, :commentable_type]
This post was originally published at the CodeVader weblog.
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